The fungus that causes black rot of grapes (Guignardia bidwellii) threatens all green parts of the grape. This pathogen can cause great damage to vines and reduce yields by up to 60-80% in warm and wet weather conditions. It was first detected in Hungary in 1999.
Grape peronospora (Plasmopara viticola), which prefers warm and humid weather, is a well-known and dangerous pathogen of grapes that attacks both leaves and bunches. The bunches are susceptible to infection until the shrivelling period, while the leaves are susceptible, to a decreasing extent, until the end of the growing season.
One of the most important pathogens of grapes is the grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator, syn.: Uncinula necator), an external parasitic fungus that threatens all green parts of the vine, but is particularly fond of young tissues.
Gray mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) is one of the most important pathogens of grapes, which can infect all green parts of the plant, but is most dangerous on the bunches. It is a highly polyphagous (polyphytic) pathogen.
The cornerstone of the cultivation of economic crops (including grapes) is their protection from various pathogens and pests that threaten both the quantity and quality of the harvest.
The use of plant protection products, which are classified as less toxic, can also place a significant burden on the environment, the person applying the product and the consumer.
Integrated pest management for grapes starts before the planting of the vineyard, by selecting the right area for planting, as integrated production of grapes is easier to achieve in a site that is as suitable as possible for the needs of the plant. It is advisable to avoid areas with low altitude, frost and a humid and damp microclimate, which is favourable to various pathogens.