Field Book

Yes, you can with the appropriate access rights. However, there are some constraints in this domain: in some limited cases it is prohibited on account of data model consistency.

Yes of course. The PlantCT System has a wide range of data import facilities, such as SAP, EDIFACT, according to the recommendations of the FAO’s E-agriculture Department. In addition several low level data import information channels are available for the FieldBook customers, such as EXCEL-Files, XML data format. Detailed technical documentation specifies the exact import file formats.

The usage of the FieldBook is out and away more optional as obligatory. According to the well function of plant disease models, pest prediction and phenology models the system need some observation data and the date of the plant protection operations.

Yes, you can. With customer status, who is the owner or the subscriber, you can give access right or deny each individual operations within the FieldBook.

Yes, you can. The PlantCT System does contain a highly sophisticated FieldBook Report Generator (FBRG), with that the report format can be freely defined.

Particularly, because the data loading operation divided into two parts, observations and operations. Including this two area the customer can the data elements classify freely in the FieldBook.

Yes, the basic functions of FieldBook won’t change in the future. The development of the PlantCT System takes good note of the backward compatibility.

No, it isn’t. The customer is able to define new data type, according to his/her actual demand.

Yes, you can. In pdf , xls and docx format depending on the data type.

Yes of course. The PlantCT System has a wide range of data import facilities, such as SAP, EDIFACT, according to the recommendations of the FAO’s E-agriculture Department. In addition several low level data import information channels are available for the FieldBook customers, such as EXCEL-Files, XML data format. Detailed technical documentation specifies the exact import file formats.

The stored data can be divided into two main parts such as operations and observations. The PlantCT System stores in the FieldBook every relevant agronomic activity, like pruning, soil cultivation, plant protection works (spraying, dusting) with date and precise denomination. Furthermore the PlantCT System can fix the most relevant phenological, phytosanitary and weather events, as well.

Yes, the FieldBook application is the main part of this decision support system. However, the PlantCT System is a well-structured, tailorable product.

The main purpose to register the most important event related with the crop growing, data loading, storing and query.

The QuantisLabs Ltd offers several type a technical documents, such as context-sensitive help during the on-line using of the PlantCT System, tutorials in printed and on-line formats, instructor videos on youtube.

The comprehensive support services of QuantisLabs Ltd provide a full scale of technical and organisational advices from the installation over the data rescue to the regulation of the everyday usage.

The QuantisLabs Ltd and its contracting partners offer a wide range type of consulting services from basic agricultural knowledges to the highest level of plant protection technologies according to the expressed customers’ demand.

Organic grape growing

Yes, of course: the certifications are an important step forward.

The California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance (CSWA) developed a third-party certification program related to the California Sustainable Winegrowing Program (SWP) to increase the sustainability of the California wine industry using organic grape growing methodes by promoting the adoption of sustainable practices of organic grape growing and ensuring of its continual improvement.

Sustainable Winegrowing New Zealand is an industry-wide certification programme led by New Zealand organic winegrowers. The SWNZ programme is based on continuous improvement and adherence to recommendations and guidelines issued by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV).

Sustainable farming can actually cost more to manage than conventional techniques in some cases. If ISO 14001 or another management protocol is utilized then apart from labour, administrative and reporting costs can be substantial.

For example a sustainable winery in New Zealand will cost a winery $550 per year and $375 for their vineyard. In addition, the extra time it takes to manage this system adds up to tens of thousands of dollars for the average winery.

The bottom line is whether or not any of these methods can produce a product that achieves a higher average price than their competitors.

Grapes are susceptible to a large number of insect and disease pests. Select disease-tolerant cultivars when possible and utilize good sanitation practices. Monitor grapes closely and if problems occur, treat early with organic pest solutions.

Some recommended products: Hormex Rooting Concentrate – A household name within the horticultural community for almost 50 years; Bone Meal (3-15-0) – Promotes superior roots and fruit development in ALL flowering plants; Kelp Meal (1-0-2) – An excellent source of micronutrients and beneficial plant growth promoters; Bird-X – This lightweight netting is designed to protect fruits and berries from damage; Liquid Copper Fungicide – Use to combat a wide variety of fungal diseases without toxic poisons.

Yes, of course. Please, do not pick grapes until ripe. Unlike tomatoes, they will not ripen further after harvest. Most varieties should be picked in bunches when all of the grapes in the cluster are fully colored, taste sweet and slide off easily. Other varieties, like muscadine berries, should be spot-picked because they do not ripen evenly.

All grapes produce fruit on one-year-old wood. That means that the growth produced during the previous year will produce fruit for the coming season.

After planting, do no pruning at all during the first full year. Immature grape vines need abundant stems and leaves to help develop a strong root system.

The second year, select the strongest and most vigorous stem that developed during the first season. Remove all other stems and leaves as close to the base as possible. Stake the one remaining stem to provide support. This stem will become the main trunk of the vine. Pinch the top of the main stem to encourage side growth.

After the second year, select two of the best-looking stems that are growing horizontally from the main trunk. Ideally they should be on opposite sides and about the same height on the trunk.

Grapes grow easily from cuttings. Select a healthy stem about 2 feet long with at least 4 buds. Place the cutting in fast draining, sandy soil in a location with full sun. Two buds should be below the ground and two above.

The bottom half of the cutting should be dipped in rooting hormone. Early spring is the best time to plant from cuttings. Plant from nursery stock by digging a hole as deep as the container. Prior to planting, soak the roots in compost tea for 20 minutes and dust roots with a mixture of 2 cups of kelp meal and 1 cup of bone meal.

When planting, make sure that the top 1 inch of the root ball sits above the surface to prevent sucker growth from the graft. Space the plants 6 to 8 feet apart.

All types of grapes require a warm planting site with full sun and moderate water. Consult with a nursery professional to select a variety that will do well in your area. The soil at the planting site should be loose, rich and deep. The roots of grape vines go deep into the earth. Amend to a depth of 24 to 36 inches with a good organic compost to improve existing soil. PlantCT(TM) System.

Here is a Quick Guide what you should do: Choose varieties best suited to your region. Grow from cuttings or nursery stock. Plant in full sun in compost-rich soil. Locate where breezes can dry off moisture. Fertilize early in the season; water regularly. Prune carefully to minimize side shoots. Provide a trellis or other support. Check regularly for pest damage, cover with netting to protect fruit from birds.

The comprehensive support services of QuantisLabs Ltd provide a full scale of technical and organisational advices from the begining over the highly sophisticated organic growing technologies to the marketing.

The QuantisLabs Ltd and its contracting partners offer a wide range type of consulting services from basic agricultural knowledges to the highest level of organic growing technologies according to the expressed customers’ demand.

Non-organic farming can reduce the risk of losing a crop and hence reduces the overall risk to a business. If a National Association for Sustainable Agriculture Australia (NASAA) certified producer finds powdery mildew in their vineyard they have a choice to spray the vineyard with synthetic fungicides and lose certification (for 3 years) or potentially lose the entire crop.

These additional costs and risks can in turn lead to a higher production price for organic wine and/or lower profits. A winery may in turn lose its market following if they are unable to certify their product.

Proponents of organic viticulture say that this system can actually cost less to run, especially in the long term. The use of synthetic chemicals can be very expensive, and over many years this may result in toxicity (especially metals) in the vineyard.

Many organic farmers, (especially Biodynamic), believe that their yields have stabilized since converting to these methods. Therefore, the potential to extend the life of their vineyard with consistent yields can be a huge advantage for some growers. Examples include Fetzer in the U.S or Cono Sur in Chile.

The simplest thing for organic grape growing is putting your prejudices aside and choosing varieties for their ability to grow well for you, not because they are “classic” varieties. The old American grape Norton can be grown without disease in much of the US and as winemakers learn to use it, it makes outstanding red wines.

Organic viticulture can broadly be separated into two categories, “Organic” and “Biodynamic”. The first organic method produces grapes without the use of synthetic fertilizers, herbicides, fungicides or insecticides.

Biodynamic viticulture is an “organic” method that looks at the vineyard as a complex “closed” system, where the use of “preparations” made by herbs and manures is advised to promote soil and vine health.

Partnership

Exclusivity is possible, however it is also set to some conditions from our side too. This is the issue we should discuss further, but in advance we aim to set some sales KPI-s in exchange for exclusivity.

This is a valid question, we are working on designing brochures about the product, so in a few weeks we hope to be able to come up with some of these materials too.

Quantislabs responsibility:

1, Providing the devices and the solution according to contracts signed with the customers (or partners’ contract)

2, Providing all necessary information and materials for contracting and providing the solution (some set up, software installation)

3, Providing technical support for customers directly and/or providing all necessary information to the partner that is required for sales activity

Destribution partner responsibilities:

1, Contracting with the client

2, Purchasing the devices or the subscription from Quantislabs for the contracted period –> paying for the subscription as specified in contract

3, Providing all necessary information to Quantislabs about the needs and negotiate with potential customers regarding the exavt date of delivery and the specifications of the products

We have no ready to sign partnership agreement yet, so we can work out a mutually benefitial contract with you.

Pesticide database

The usage of the Pesticide Database is out and away rather obligatory like optional. According to the well designed function of the Decision Support Engine, the pest prediction and the phenology models, the correct operation of the whole PlantCT(TM) System is based on the presence of the Pesticide Database.

Yes, you can. With customer status, who is the owner or the subscriber, you can give access right or deny each individual database operations in the domain of within the Pesticide Database of the PlantCT(TM) System.

Yes, the basic structure of the Pesticide Database won’t change in the future. The development of the PlantCT(TM) System takes good note of the backward compatibility.

Requesting information about plant protection products, essentially. Inserting and modificating data elements require write and delete operations.

The Pesticide Database gives full support to the customer to select the right plant protection product at the right time. The following database fields  are stored in the database ‘Producer’, ‘Brand name’, ‘Chemical form’, ‘Hazardousness information’, ‘Human Hazardousness’, ‘Honey Bee Hazardousness’, ‘Aquatic Life Hazardousness’, ‘Environmental Hazardousness’, ‘Ingredients’, ‘Max individual dose’, ‘Max num of treatments’, ‘Latest time of application’, ‘Diseases’, ‘Product sheet URL’, and ‘Remark field’.

Exporting data from a database is always simpler. Whether the delivered utilities, or third-party software tools are used, is a matter of taste.

Anytime. However, some arrangements are needed. The carefully prepared and absolutely exhaustive technical details of the structural database documentation support that.

Easily and effectively. Sophisticated User Interface offers several selection combinations, to specify the right queries. In case of selecting from the herbicides, the plant culture, weed, country, producer, brand name, ingredients, unwanted ingredients, and several hazardousness indicators can be specified.

Nothing, in a proper sense. You can accept or even reject the suggestions of the PlantCT(TM) System, what plant protection product should be used.

The answer is a clear yes, in consideration of the fact, that each database entry is particularly country specific. Furthermore you are able to change this viewpont, selecting database content with different county specific arguments.

Country-specific fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, and regulators are stored in the database.

Yes and no: a particular answer to a question cannot be given. On the one hand the Pesticide Database is tightly integrated into the PlantCT(TM) System, otherwise a quite simple user program with query facilities can also be a good solution to access the content the Pesticide Database without using the PlantCT(TM) System.

The customer is getting hold of on varying expertise level documentations, on diverse electronic media from the elementary ‘First Steps to Use the Pesticide Database’ to the ‘How to recover a crashed Pesticide Database destroyed by hardware failures’.

The comprehensive support services of QuantisLabs Ltd provide a full scale of technical and organisational advices from the installation over the data rescue to the regulation of the everyday usage of the Pesticide Database of the PlantCT(TM) System.

The QuantisLabs Ltd and its contracting partners offer a wide range type of consulting services from elementary database handling knowledges to the highest level of mastering database technologies according to the expressed customers’ demand.

The Pesticide Database contains plant protection products for different plant cultures. The database contains each relevant data element of the stored plant protection products.

PlantCT™ System in general

The last delivered system (12. Jan. 2018) has the version number 3-022. The release notes informs the customer about several new and sophisticated features and numerous performance improvements.

Approximately 8.000 Station Modules per estate, 31 plant type, 16.383 customer denote the theoretical performance limits of the PlantCT(TM) System.

Distributed cloud-based computing architecture, scalable and load-balanced servers, GSM-based communication, wireless sensors, in browser-context running user interface characterize the PlantCT(TM) System.

Model-based product design in each (hardware, software, mechanics, disease prediction, …) domain. Relational Database Management System

The  excessive scalability of the PlantCT(TM) System performs the following two advantages: delivering of customized and flexible system configuration, easy system service expansion in an ecomically reasonable way.

The second one. Constructing a modern, modular system, with standardized interfaces, using the cutting-edge hardware-software technologies were absolutely de rigueur.

The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.

Phenological models are well proven tools to forecast phenological events of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), for example bud burst, flowering or veraison. The main variable is the air temperature.

Modelling the starting dates of bud break and full bloom could be quite important because the success of plant protection and technology techniques scheduling depends mainly on phenological information.

An Advanced BBCH estimator provides actual BBCH values to several plant disease forecast models. The estimator should be run from late autumn to the end of harvest, parametrized with different input ‘target_heatsum’ values.

In case of grapevine the following plant diseases forecasting models are used: Botrytis, Erwinia amylovora (stage Blossom Blight), Erwinia amylovora (stage Trauma Blight), Erysiphe necator (Primary Infection), Erysiphe necator secondary infection, Guignardia bidwellii (perithecia) – primary infection, Phomopsis viticola, Plasmopara viticola, Plasmopara viticola (secondary), Podosphaera leucotricha (secondary infection), Venturia inaequalis (COOKE) WINT.

The PlantCT system has two main parts: one an on-site device deployed in a vineyard or orchard; and the other, a web-based tool that analyses weather sensor data.

The forecasting system gives predictions by using mathematical models, provides a warning message to the customer about the risk level based on these models.

Risk evaluations are no substitute for decision making but they help to inform on choice in using a chemical application. After a treatment and allowing for the time interval from the last application date, the PlantCT System will restarts monitoring until the end of the growing season for any potential new pathogen infection or pest damage.

The comprehensive support services of QuantisLabs Ltd provide a full scale of technical and organisational advices from the initial installation of the PlantCT(TM) System to the regulation of the everyday usage.

The QuantisLabs Ltd and its contracting partners offer wide range type of consulting services from basic agricultural knowledges to the highest level of plant protection technologies, according to the expressed customers’ demand, and with the expressed target how to use the PlantCT(TM) System effectively.

Who is able to manage his/her own plantation successfully, can offhand continue this pursuit with PlantCT(TM) System, as well. Some IT, or bioinformatics skills or motivation to learn that could apparently be advantageous.

The grape is the number-one, apple, banana, rice, and olive continue the list.

Yes, of course. On an average apple plant (production area is 1.000 ha, avg.yield qty. is 167.000 hg/ha, avg.price is 0.62 $/hg) the total estimated yearly savings are $875.000 (1st year), $2.050.000 (2nd year), and $3.087.000 (3rd year). These values are in similar order of magnitude in case of banana and grape, as well.

The PlantCT(TM) System is an integrated professional computerized system for plant protection-, spraying- and watering optimization of the different plans, as well as for tracking the volume of applied pesticides from Apple to Sunflower and Tomato.

The PlantCT(TM) System, from QuantisLabs Ltd. is being developed
for various applications including vineyard, orchard and arable crop production.

The PlantCT(TM) System is a site specific management system which continuously monitors and updates the field conditions and data logs environmental conditions; disease risk and pest outbreaks; as well as plant phenological phases based on the standardised BBCH-scale.

Prediction models

Very detailed, exact and accurate descriptions, explanatory diagrams, and statistical support are available for the customer of the PlantCT(TM) System.

The Prediction Models are the core components within the PlantCT(TM) System, having a extremely large impact  on the whole system functionality.

There are no general methods, procedures, interfaces to influence the behaviours of the Prediction Models,- the mentioned control parameters act per model only.

Partially yes. The general control parameter of the Prediction Models are always be fine-tunned during the installation of PlantCT(TM) System. However, the customer (using the access rights controlled user interfaces for that) can the Prediction Models every time reconfigure,

it is not advisable. The Operational Personnel of the PlantCT(TM) System is always informed about such control parameter re-resetting.

The QuantisLabs Ltd is working on the prediction capability of the models continuously. As result, the better models will regularly be updated, generating better forecast for diseases and pests.

That is not allowed. The Prediction Models are high important, central central components of the PlantCT(TM) System.

Yes, of course. The Prediction Models’ output is four-stage message corresponding to ‘no risk’, ‘low  risk’, ‘moderated risk’, and ‘high risk’.

The inherent error of the environmental sensors, the Prediction Models’ error do not allow to achieve higher resolution.

Our Prediction Models are formulated as indented, structured text with mathematical formulas, which are implemented as software program.

The models as software modules are driven by real-time collected environmental data, such as air temerature, and relative humidity, and they are running continuously on a large central data processing server, which informs the customers also real-time about the potential risks on their plant areas.

Yes, of course, The QuantisLabs Ltd. is deeply grateful for each amending suggestion, improvement towards a common objective, to  ameliorate the PlantCT(TM) System.

Not yet. However the Prediction Models have well-defined systems interfaces, and so they can theoretically be substituted, the current version of the PlantCT(TM) System does not support this procedure.

The PlantCT(TM) System contains Prediction models for the following crops: apple, apricot, banana, cacao, cannabis, coffee, cotton, cucumber, grape vine, green pepper, lettuce, olive, peach, plum, potato sour cherry, strawberry, sugar cane, sunflower, tea, tomato.

By its nature a model is more abstract than the infection process it represents. There are two steps to judging how good a model is with respect to the system.

We must ascertain whether the model implements the assumptions correctly (model verification) and whether the assumptions which have been made are reasonable with respect to the real development of the deterious procedure: this is the model validation.

These Prediction Models (their inputs are collected environmental parameters, such as air temperature and relative humidity, leaf wetness. etc.,) are implemented as software programs, and running continuously to predict the threatening risks of diseases or pests.

No detailed knowledge is needed. The grower of a given crop is familiar with the typical disease and crops, and will set a high value on a well-established prediction getting in right time.

The Prediction Models are mathematical models (based on well-proven and validated experiments as essence from domain of the plant protection science).

The prediction models are able to predict disease and pests of several crops. the following crops: apple, apricot, banana, cacao, cannabis, coffee, cotton, cucumber, grape vine, green pepper, lettuce, olive, peach, plum, potato sour cherry, strawberry, sugar cane, sunflower, tea, tomato.

Product & Software

Yes, it will, however it is not available yet. Our former product had one, so it is only question of time.

TBD – Yes, we are planning with yearly subscriptions, not to disturb the business due to seasonality changes. Prices are calculated based on this model.

A gemified demo version of the program is under developmnet, we hope to be able to launch it within 1 week.

TBD – Due to the subscription fee based business model, most likely, it is only cloud based, or at least the functionality is cloud based.

TBD – I guess the product can provide useful data from day one in some cases (e.g. water deficiency), however a few weeks can be useful to be able to provide quality decision making.

Yes, there will be some maintenance claims in a few years. Warrantee is provided for the period of the subscription. In case of purchasing the devices, warranty is applicable for 2 years.

We have a subscription fee based model, and customers can order for at least 1 year period. The price is between 180-250 USD / month depending on the functionality of the product (there will be S [small], M [mdeium] and L [large] product types or packages in the beginning). For specific prices please find the attached Terms and Conditions document.

Of course there is the possibility to purchase the devices.  The price of purchasing 1 device is between 6 480 USD – 9 000 USD. (please also find more details in Terms and Conditions)

Yes, the configuration of the devices are different according to the specific plant cultures.

The general guideline is that 1 device can cover 10 Ha (hectare) in normal circumstances. In a more diverese landscape (e.g. with bigger altitude differences) this are may be reduced.

Station modules

Yes, of course. As the data processing server communicates with each Station Module periodically, so each data communication deficiency from the Station Module’s side is logged and promptly evaluated.

Highly sophisticated user interface allows the customer to keep tabs on each Station Module, whether they are working correctly or even are out of work.

Yes, of course. A sensible magnetic acceleration sensor alarms the GSM-based communication channel, which informs the central data processing server about this event. The exact GPS coordinates are stored on this data processing server, which permit an effective countermeasure.

Without some redesign and partially new implementation of the GSM communication interface’s software components in the Station Module it seems to be beyond the realms of possibility. However, the published well-defined data transmission protocols allow that modification within reasonable  effort and cost frame.

It is not necessary to worry about that: the Station Modules are water-resistant and able to work between -2, and +55 Celsius grad, and the storage temperature intervall enfolds the values from -40 Celsius grad to +80 Celsius grad. So no extra protection is required during that hars winter.

After the correct physical connections there is no need to configure them. These information are also part of the detailed installation guide of the PlantCT(TM) System.

The base sensor set consists of the following ones: air temperature sensor, relative leaf wetness sensor, relative air humidity sensor, rain precipitation sensor, and sunlight radiation sensor. The QuantisLabs Ltd. is developing and marketing new sensor types again and yet again.

No power electrical network is needed for the Station Module. The quite high power consumption of the Station Module is covered by solar charged batteries.

After consulting the customer the plant protection experts of the QuantisLabs Ltd. are able to determine the optimal positions of the Station Modules. These information are part of the detailed deployment plan of the PlantCT(TM) System.

That depends on the geographical conditions, on the vegetation, and  the decision has financial aspects, as well. The plant protection experts of the QuantisLabs Ltd. are ready to prepare exact deployment plans free of charge.

The Station Module is composed of three main parts: the metal body housing, the tripod and a box containing the delivered sensors.

The total height of the metal body housing (containing the electronics) is 3.200 g, its physical  dimensions corresponds with an A4 page, with a thickness of 35 mm.

The physical dimensions of the metal tripod (to fix the metal body housing to the soil) is L1.250 mm x D180 mm x W 120 mm, total mass is

less as 8 kg.

Yes, of course, end without extra fee, in fact. However the vast majority of the PlantCT(TM) System’s customers choice rather the self-installation.

Yes, of course without further ado. The installation documentation of the  PlantCT(TM) System gives very detailed and comprehensive information to the customer who is commiting him/herself to this.

It depends on the options of the transport contract. The resident engineers of the QuantisLabs Ltd. perform this task step willingly.

This unit is responsible for periodically uploading the measurement data collected from the different wired and wireless sensors to the backend server.

The Station Module is the central component of the deployed wireless sensor network. The equipment is mounted on the field, physically closed to the environmental sensors.

Vintage Analysis

It’s the highest level of pesticide residue legally tolerated in, or on, food or feed when pesticides are applied correctly and in accordance with Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). The pesticide residue (mg/kg) is measured in, and on, harvested crops.

The Precipitation/Rainfall Indices provide data on the rainfall dispersion during the whole year, or precipitation amounts during the growing season, for example in either the bloom or the ripening period.  Typical recorded rainfall/precipitation periods are:
Annual rainfall from  –  01.01 to 12.31 (mm)
Summer rainfall from  –  06.01 to 07.01 (mm)
Winter rainfall from  –  11.01 to the next year 03.31 (mm)
Bloom period precipitation from  –  15May to 15June (mm)
Ripening period precipitation from  –  15August to 15October (mm

The Spring Frost Indices provide data on the heat relationship in spring, when after a mild winter any influential cooling in early spring can cause serious frost damage owing to a low chill sum value. To measure the potential frost damage on developing plants, the Plant CT System calculates two types of SFI:
Gladstones Spring Frost Index (°C) – lets the summation of Tmin , the minimal air temperature value in April; and Tavg (Tmax), the average value of the maximum air temperature values in April; to give the difference of the previous value and the minimum air temperature measured in the month (Gladstones, 2000).
Wolf-Boyer Spring Frost Index (°C) – lets the summation of Tmin , the minimal air temperature value in April; and Tavg (Tmax), the average value of the maximum air temperature values in April; to give the difference of the previous value and the average minimum air temperature measured in the month (Wolf & Boyer, 2003).

Extreme Temperature Indices are a yearly record of heat stress on grapevine. The most relevant ETIs are the number of:
Extreme Heat Days Tmax > 35°C – the numbers of days when the maximum air temperature reaches and exceeds 35°C value.
Hot Days Tmax > 30°C – the number of days when the maximum air temperature reaches and exceeds 30°C value.
Summer Days Tmax > 25°C – the number of days when the maximum air temperature reaches and exceeds 25°C value.
Frost Days Tmin < 0°C - the number of days when the minimum air temperature is under zero (0°C) Celsius Grad. Icy Days Tmin < -10°C - the number of days when the minimum air temperature is under minus 10° Celsius Grad.

It’s a night coolness variable which takes into account the mean minimum night temperatures during the month when ripening usually occurs beyond the ripening period (Tonietto & Carbonneau, 1999).

The Cool Night Index (CNI) for grape-growing regions ranges from  CI+2 [very cool] to CI-2 [very warm] night temperatures:
Very cool  CI+2 ≤ 12 °C (night temperature)
Cool nights CI+1 CI+1 > 12 ≤ 14 °C
Temperate nights CI-1 > 14 ≤ 18 °C
Warm nights  CI-2 > 18 °C

The Winkler Index or Winkler Regions, is a technique for classifying the climate of wine growing regions based on heat summation, or growing degree-days over 10°C, from 1 April until 31 October. (Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia)
Region 1a     850 – 1,111 °C (annual temperature data)
Region 1b    1,111 – 1,389 °C
Region 2     1,389 – 1,667 °C
Region 3     1,667 – 1,944 °C
Region 4     1,944 – 2,222 °C
Region 5     2,222 – 2,700 °C

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is successfully grown in the northern hemisphere, between the 35° – 51° latitudes, where the temperature sums are above 10°C from 1 April – 30 September.  Taking geographical latitude into account, the HI formula is: where T is the mean air temperature (°C); Tx is the maximum air temperature (°C); d the length of day coefficient ranging from 1.02 to 1.06 (for the latitudes 40°- 50°). The Heliothermal Index (HI) for grape-growing regions ranges from HI-3 [very cool] to HI+3 [very warm] and with double the total annual temperature:

Very warm HI+3 > 3,000 °C  (annual temperature data)

Warm HI+2 >2,400 ≤ 3,000 °C

Temperate warm HI+1 >2,100 ≤ 2,400 °C

Temperate HI-1  >1,800 ≤ 2,100 °C

Cool HI-2 >1,500 ≤ 1,800 °C

Very cool HI-3  ≤ 1,500 °C

It’s a record during the dormant season in temperate climate zones – from autumn until early spring – of daily average air temperatures when they are sub-zero (-0°C) and thus below freezing.

It’s the vegetation period measured by the time interval during the year when average air temperatures reach 10°C and are maintained at/above that temperature.

It’s a heat accumulation method developed, in 1992, by Gladstones. BEDD has two temperature thresholds: a lower one of 10°C; and an upper one of 19°C. Vines utilise heat sums in this range during the growing season.

It’s a comprehensive analysis of the ‘Growing Season’ which anticipates changes in growing conditions from: Biologically Effective Degree Days (BEDD); Growing Season Length (GSL); and Chill Sum(CS) values.

‘Vintage Analysis’ in grapevine is the annual statistical dataset from factors that determine, or limit yield (temperature/rainfall). ‘Vintage Analysis’ provides an estimated yield and is used to predict a year’s growing season from measured bioclimatic indices  –  temperature and precipitation. The components for ‘Vintage Analysis’ are found in the PlantCT™ System User Interface Menu.